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How to Teach Letter Recognition in Early Childhood

Letter recognition is a predictor of reading success and the foundation for literacy skills. Help children learn how to identify and distinguish the letters of the alphabet with these simple activities.

How to Teach Letter Recognition in Early Childhood

How to Teach Letter Recognition in Early Childhood

Developing letter recognition skills is essential for early childhood literacy development. Children’s knowledge of letter names, shapes, and sounds sets them up for success as they learn to read and write.

This is an important skill for educators to teach and families to reinforce at home. This article outlines the important pre-literacy skills that support all future learning as well as simple and engaging activities to teach children letter recognition skills and the alphabet.

What is letter recognition?

Letter learning has four components—letter recognition, letter naming, letter-sound knowledge, and letter writing. 

  • Letter recognition, also known as alphabet recognition, is the ability to identify letters by name, shape, and sound.
  • Letter naming is recognizing letter shapes and associating them with a letter name.
  • Letter-sound knowledge, or the alphabetic principle, is understanding that letters represent the sounds of spoken language.
  • Letter writing refers to the ability to write or trace a letter.

Letter recognition skills

All children develop at their own pace and don’t acquire letter recognition skills at the same time, however most children know the alphabet by the time they start kindergarten. Around age two or three, children begin to recognize the letters in their name. Children at this age sometimes scribble what looks like the first letter of their name.

Letter recognition skills don’t begin to fully develop until preschool. By age four, children can often identify all letters of the alphabet and start to connect letters to their sounds. Children struggling to recognize letters in preschool often experience challenges in elementary school, highlighting the importance of teaching this essential skill at a young age.

Letter cognition skills start to develop when children express interest in the alphabet. Most children's interest develops when they see older children or adults reading books or doing homework.

Letter recognition and mastery depend on other skills like visual perception, auditory perception, visual-motor skills, and memory. Below, we elaborate on these skills and how to develop them.

1. Visual perception

Visual perception is how a child’s brain makes sense of what their eyes see. In this context, it’s how children see and interpret different alphabet letters. Shape and case type are the primary ways children can recognize letters through visual perception.

The following activities are excellent for developing visual perception skills:

  • Puzzles
  • Playing memory
  • Magic eye books
  • Sorting things
  • Using flashcards

2. Auditory perception

Auditory perception in letter recognition refers to perceiving and understanding the difference between letter sounds. Some activities for improving children’s auditory perception skills include:

  • Talking to them

  • Reading to them

  • Saying rhymes

  • Listening to music

  • Playing musical instruments

3. Visual-motor skills

Visual-motor skills in letter recognition refer to the ability to see, interpret, and write or trace alphabet letters. Letter tracing and writing are the best activities to promote visual-motor skills in letter recognition. You can also use fine motor activities like lacing and building puzzles. 

4. Memory

Memory is a cognitive skill children acquire while growing. Memory is the ability to remember past experiences, facts, and skills. Memory skills in letter recognition refer to remembering different letters of the alphabet by name, shape, and sound. Some activities to promote children’s memory skills include:

  • Sing-a-longs
  • Identifying noises
  • Practicing the alphabet
  • Practicing shapes and colors

Why is learning the alphabet important for early literacy development?

Early literacy development refers to everything that children learn as they get ready to read and write. Early literacy skills include vocabulary building, playing with the sounds of language through things like songs, learning how to hold books, learning to write through drawing and scribbling, and understanding letter-sound connections. Learning the alphabet supports these early literacy skills and establishes a strong foundation for literacy development. 

Some ways to promote early literacy skills include, reading aloud, asking questions, naming objects, challenging children to describe events, making rhymes, and singing songs. All of these activities help build children’s reading, writing, and language skills.

How to teach letter recognition

Teaching letter recognition can be simple, fun, and inexpensive. Below are some ways to teach young children letter recognition skills.

Letter sequence 

The best practice is to start with frequently used letters, like the letters in their names. Children are more familiar with these letters, making them the best starting point for letter learning. You can introduce them to one or two letters at a time and introduce more as they learn. 

Letter casing

Distinguishing between capital and lowercase letters is critical in developing early literacy skills. You’ll need to introduce the children to both as they learn the alphabet. Start with capital letters, since they’re more distinctive, and teach their lowercase equivalent once they’ve mastered the capital letters. 

Teach confusing letters one at a time

Some letters like “W” and “M” may be confusing for children. It’s best to identify all letters that may be confusing for children and teach them one at a time. You can reinforce this lesson by incorporating activities like letter sorting.

Literacy activities for preschoolers

Literacy activities promote letter recognition skills. Here are some creative and easy preschool letter activities teachers can use to teach children how to recognize letter names, shapes, and sounds.

1. Kick the letter cup

This activity is an excellent way to teach letter recognition while incorporating some physical activity. You’ll need a stack of plastic cups, a marker, and a soccer ball. Write single letters on cups and then line them up in a row. Give the child a soccer ball and ask them to kick it toward the cups. Instruct the child to identify the letter on the cup that the ball hits.

2. I spy

The classic “I Spy” game can be played with children of all ages. Spot something in the classroom and tell the children what sound or letter it starts with. Children must look around the room and try to figure out what you “spied”. 

3. Letter scavenger hunt

Ask children to search for objects that start with a specific letter, like finding a crayon for the letter “c”.

4. Alphabet songs

Preschool songs like, alphabet songs or rhyming songs, are an easy and interactive way to reinforce letter sounds, alphabetical order, and letter names.

5. Color sorting letters

You’ll need a marker, printable rainbow worksheet, and colored dot stickers for this literacy activity. Write a letter on each dot sticker using a marker and have children match each dot sticker to the correct rainbow color.

rainbow dot sticker letter recognition activitySource

6. Alphabet pillow jumping

For this activity, you’ll need a stack of paper plates, packing tape, a marker, and some pillows. Write a single letter on each paper plate. Next, use the packing tape to stick each plate on a pillow, then spread the pillows on the floor. Instruct the children to jump from one corner of the room to another and call out the letter on the paper plate or its sound.

7. Alphabet ball

For this early literacy letter recognition activity, you’ll need an inflatable beach ball and a marker. Write letters of the alphabet evenly on the ball using the marker. Instruct the child or children to throw the ball up in the air, then shout the letter facing them when they catch it.

beach ball letter recognition activitySource


It’s easy to incorporate letter recognition in everyday activities in the classroom or at home. Exposing children to a variety of reading, writing, and other early literacy activities will provide a solid foundation for future learning success.

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